Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019)

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TOC Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019)

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(Durham, NC USA) Paumanok IMR announces the release of the advanced research project report entitled “Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019)” , which takes a detailed look at the global market for ultra-high purity nickel electrode powders and pastes consumed as the electrode layers of multilayered ceramic chip capacitors (MLCC). POWDER: This study updates the 1995 and 2005 studies of the same title by the same publisher and the same author. The study analyzes the global value and volume of consumption for nickel electrode MLCC powder, as well as the average price per kilogram over time as benchmarked by the prior studies. The study establishes the long-term historical value, volume and pricing for nickel electrode powder over time. The study also details the value of consumption for nickel electrode powder by particle size, and establishes price and end-product consumption points of differentiation based upon the mean particle size of the powder (<0.1, 0.1-0.19, 0.2-0.3, 0.4 to 0.5+ nm diameter). The study also discusses the world’s top customers for nickel electrode powder by country and world region, including an analyses of all known factories producing MLCC by country (80+ MLCC Factories By Country and Location Worldwide). The study also addresses the detailed “matching systems” for nickel electrode powder and pastes in ceramic dielectrics and termination materials, and synergies between vendors of PBM and BME, barium titanate and additive materials. PASTE: The study also addresses the global paste nickel electrode paste markets for MLCC, detailing the supply chain from powder to paste and addresses how some of the best pastes are available form the merchant market, but how most paste is produced captive by the MLCC manufacturers. Most importantly the study addresses recent changes in the market, including the captive development of nickel electrode powder and paste by some of the world’s top MLCC producers. Market share data for (1) nickel powders and (2) nickel pastes are also given by vender. MLCC ROADMAP FORWARD: The study also shows the roadmap of development with respect to the application of nickel electrode powder in MLCC going forward and the recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology and paste development that have enabled (A) a dramatic increase in capacitance value in microfarads per MLCC, as well as a (B) potential to increase voltage per MLCC to threaten alternative electrolytic capacitor technologies. FORECASTS: The outlook for nickel electrode powder consumed in MLCC is discussed in terms of its ability to win new designs in emerging markets as it competes against related electrostatic and electrolytic material systems. The study also addresses recent spikes in MLCC market activity, MLCC shortages and "EOL" timeliness, and the resulting capacity expansion by the major MLCC manufacturers in 2019 as well as long term market forecasts to 2024. See the detailed Table of Contents for greater insight into the scope and depth of this advanced project Paumanok IMR research report. Updates the 1995 and 2005 study of the same title. Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019); 180 Pages, 80 Figures; Published September 2019. $3,750.00 Single User License.

Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019)

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(Durham, NC USA) Paumanok IMR announces the release of the advanced research project report entitled “Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019)” , which takes a detailed look at the global market for ultra-high purity nickel electrode powders and pastes consumed as the electrode layers of multilayered ceramic chip capacitors (MLCC). POWDER: This study updates the 1995 and 2005 studies of the same title by the same publisher and the same author. The study analyzes the global value and volume of consumption for nickel electrode MLCC powder, as well as the average price per kilogram over time as benchmarked by the prior studies. The study establishes the long-term historical value, volume and pricing for nickel electrode powder over time. The study also details the value of consumption for nickel electrode powder by particle size, and establishes price and end-product consumption points of differentiation based upon the mean particle size of the powder (<0.1, 0.1-0.19, 0.2-0.3, 0.4 to 0.5+ nm diameter). The study also discusses the world’s top customers for nickel electrode powder by country and world region, including an analyses of all known factories producing MLCC by country (80+ MLCC Factories By Country and Location Worldwide). The study also addresses the detailed “matching systems” for nickel electrode powder and pastes in ceramic dielectrics and termination materials, and synergies between vendors of PBM and BME, barium titanate and additive materials. PASTE: The study also addresses the global paste nickel electrode paste markets for MLCC, detailing the supply chain from powder to paste and addresses how some of the best pastes are available form the merchant market, but how most paste is produced captive by the MLCC manufacturers. Most importantly the study addresses recent changes in the market, including the captive development of nickel electrode powder and paste by some of the world’s top MLCC producers. Market share data for (1) nickel powders and (2) nickel pastes are also given by vender. MLCC ROADMAP FORWARD: The study also shows the roadmap of development with respect to the application of nickel electrode powder in MLCC going forward and the recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology and paste development that have enabled (A) a dramatic increase in capacitance value in microfarads per MLCC, as well as a (B) potential to increase voltage per MLCC to threaten alternative electrolytic capacitor technologies. FORECASTS: The outlook for nickel electrode powder consumed in MLCC is discussed in terms of its ability to win new designs in emerging markets as it competes against related electrostatic and electrolytic material systems. The study also addresses recent spikes in MLCC market activity, MLCC shortages and "EOL" timeliness, and the resulting capacity expansion by the major MLCC manufacturers in 2019 as well as long term market forecasts to 2024. See the detailed Table of Contents for greater insight into the scope and depth of this advanced project Paumanok IMR research report. Updates the 1995 and 2005 study of the same title. Nickel Electrode Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies and Opportunities: 2019-2024 ISBN: 1-89-3211-38-X (2019); 180 Pages, 80 Figures; Published September 2019. $3,750.00 Single User License.
Table of Contents About The Author 15 1.0 Introduction 16 1.1 Focus of This Specific Report 16 1.2 Research Methodology Employed: 16 1.3 The Paumanok Research Methodology: 30 Years Studying Passive Capacitor Markets 17 1.3.1 Government Data Collection and Resources: 17 1.3.2 Secondary Published Sources: 18 1.3.3 Primary Intelligence Gathering: 18 1.4 Fixed Capacitors and Their Respective Sub-Categories: FY 2019 19 1.5 The Passive Capacitor Supply Chain: 20 1.5.1 Mining of Raw Materials: 20 1.5.2 Raw Materials Processing: 21 1.5.3 Capacitor Manufacturing: 21 1.5.4 Capacitor Distribution: 21 1.5.5 End-Market Consumption: 22 1.5.6 Recycling of Critical Materials: 22 1.6 The Technical Economic Maxims Associated With Passive Electronic Capacitors: 23 1.7 The Two Technical Economic Maxims Associated with Passive Electronic Capacitors: 23 1.7.1 Ubiquitous Nature of Passive Electronic Capacitors In Electrical and Electronic Circuits: 24 1.7.2 Relationship Between Performance and Available Surface Area: 24 1.8 Financial Considerations With Respect To This Report: 24 1.8.1 Fiscal Year Reporting 24 Currency Translation 24 1.8.2 Yen Valuation To The US Dollar: Trend and Directions For The March and June 2019 Quarters: 26 1.8.3 Positive Market Indicators: 27 1.8.4 Negative Market Indicators: 27 1.8.5 Overall Outlook To 2024: 27 1.8.6 Changing View on Passive Component Unit Sales to 2024: 27 1.9 Key Findings of This Report: 27 1.9.1 CRL Annual Review and Forecast: Passive Electronic Component: FY 2018- FY 2019 Market Summary 27 1.9.2 Key Passive Products Growth in USD Annualized year-On Year: FDY 2018-FY 2019 28 1.9.3 Regional Growth in FY 2018 and FY 2019: 28 1.9.4 End Use Segment Growth in FY 2018 and FY 2019 28 1.10 Key Forecasting of Future Markets 29 1.10.1 Capacity Expansion Estimates 29 1.10.2 Price Adjustments: 30 1.11 The Booming Capacitor Markets: FY 2019 30 1.12 Capacitor Lead Times and Shortages 30 1.12.1 Lead-Time Trends In Passive Components: FY 2019 By Month 30 1.12.2 2018 and 2019 Component SHORTAGES 31 1.12.3 Capacitor Lead Times Sow Shortages in 2018 Lead Time For Capacitors By Dielectric Type and Sub-Category 32 1.12.4 Capacitor Lead Time Trends: 2013-2019 By Month 32 1.12.5 Capacitor Lead Times in Weeks: Overall Trend by Month to August 2019 32 1.12.6 MLCC Lead Times- Overall Through August 2019 (8 Categories) 35 1.12.5.1 Ceramic, 0201 MLCC (Chips (0201 BaTI02): 35 1.12.5.2 Ceramic, 0402 MLCC (Chips (0402 BaTI02): 35 1.12.5.3 Ceramic, 0603 MLCC (Chips (0603 BaTI02): 35 1.12.5.4 Ceramic, 0805 MLCC (Chips (0805 BaTI02): 35 1.12.5.5 Ceramic, 1206 MLCC (Chips (1206 BaTI02): 36 1.12.5.6 Ceramic, 1210-1225 MLCC (Chips (1210-1225 BaTI02): 36 1.12.5.7 Ceramic, High-CV MLCC (Chips All Sizes BaTI02 In Hydrothermal, alk-oxide or sol-gel): 36 1.12.5.8 Ceramic, Specialty Capacitors: 36 1.13 Volume, Value and Pricing Data: 36 1.14 Forecasting Methodology: Fundamental Aspects of the 20 Year Growth Cycle In Passive Components: 36 2.1 Ceramic Capacitors: Technology Overview: 2019 37 2.1.1 Ceramic Capacitor Types: 37 2.1.2 Ceramic Capacitor Configurations: 37 2.1.3 MLCC Design: 38 2.1.4 MLCC Case Sizes: 40 2.1.5 Ceramic Capacitor Metallization: 40 2.1.6 Palladium Electrodes: 41 2.1.7 Nickel Electrodes: 41 2.1.8 Copper Electrodes: 41 2.1.9 Termination Materials: 42 2.1.10 Ceramic Dielectric Materials (Where Ceramic Capacitors Get Their Name): 42 2.1.11 Ceramic Capacitor Performance Classes 43 2.1.12 Class I Ceramics (NPO/COG): 43 2.1.13 Developments in COG BME MLCC 44 2.1.14 Class II Ceramics (X7R/Z5U/Y5V) 44 2.1.15 X7R Capacitors (BX) 44 2.1.16 Developments in X7R BME MLCC 45 2.1.18 Z5U (BZ) Capacitors 45 2.1.19 Y5V Capacitors 45 2.1.21 Class III Ceramics 46 2.2 Emerging Capacitor Technologies: 2019-2025 46 2.3 Emerging Capacitor Manufacturing Techniques: 2019-2025 47 2.4 Designing Capacitors for Emerging Markets: 2019-2025 47 2.5 The Next Generation Capacitor: 2019-2025 47 3.0 Nickel Metal Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies, Forecasts and Breakthroughs: 2019-2024 48 3.1 The Fastest Growth Segment of The Electronic Materials Supply Chain in 2019 48 3.2 MLCC Electrodes- The Fastest Growth Electronic Materials Market in 2019: 48 3.3 MLCC: Market Growth Drives Nickel Electrode Consumption: 50 3.4 Nickel Electrode Technology: Key Enabling Electronic Material 50 3.5 MLCC Electrode Materials: 50 3.5 Technology Roadmapping in Nickel Electrode Powders and Pastes: 51 3.6 Particle Sizes of Nickel Electrode Powders: 51 3.7 Nickel Metal Powder and Paste: World Markets, Technologies, Forecasts and Breakthroughs: 2019-2024 52 3.7.1 Nickel Electrode Powders: World Markets, Technologies & Opportunities: 2019 52 3.7.2 Development of the Nickel Electrode Powder for MLCC Consumption Volume (Tons): 1997-2020 52 3.7.3 Market Growth in Nickel Electrode Powder for MLCC Value ($/MM) 1997-2020 FORECAST IN MILLIONS OF US DOLLARS 54 3.7.4 Nickel Electrode Powder For MLCC Price Per Kilogram: 1997-2020F 55 3.7.5 Pricing Extrapolation- Ni Price Per Kg- Ni Electrode Powder Pricing by Mean Particle Size in Nanometers (USD Per Kg) 56 3.7.6 Raw Materials Consumed in the Production of MLCC: Cost Breakdown (TOTAL COST OF GOODS SOLD) VARIABLE COSTS- RAW MATERIALS ONLY) 57 3.7.7 MLCC Nickel Electrode Powder Market by Particle Size: FY 2019 58 3.7.8 Nickel Electrode Powder Sales By World Region: FY 2019 59 3.7.9 Nickel Electrode Powder Sales By Key Customer in MLCC - FY 2019- 60 3.7.10 MLCC Manufacturers: 2019 Competition by MLCC Capacitance Value 61 3.7.11 Nickel Electrode Powder Vendors to the Global MLCC Market: FY 2019 Estimated Sales and Market Shares: 63 3.7.12 Nickel Electrode Paste for MLCC: World Markets and Key Technologies: FY 2019 64 3.7.13 Nickel Paste Vendors To MLCC: FY 2019 Estimated Market Shares: 65 3.7.14 New Nickel Paste Development: FY 2020 Breakthrough in Japan 67 3.7.15 Ni Electrode Thickness/MLCC Capacitance (Murata and SEMCO Patents Point The Way) 68 3.7.16 MLCC Leads The Field In Passive Component Volumetric Efficiency 69 3.7.17 Increasing Capacitance While Decreasing Case Size in MLCC 71 3.7.18 Areas of Research & Development - Market Expansion in High Capacitance MLCC by Case Size and Voltage Per Cell 73 3.7.19 Maximum Voltage at Maximum Capacitance by Case Size in MLCC 75 3.7.20 MLCC Materials Supply Chain: Opportunities for Market and Technology Synergy 77 3.7.21 Nickel Electrode Powder Forecasts: 2019-2024 78 3.7.22 MLCC Market Forecasts: FY 2020-2024 78 3.7.23 Nickel Electrode Powder Forecasts: FY 2020-2024 79 3.7.24 MLCC Nickel Powder Market Value Forecasts: FY 2020-2025 80 4.0 MLCC Shortages By Case Size: 2018-2019 (Where The Money Is Now)- 81 4.1 Introduction: 81 4.2 Trend Analysis By Case Size: 81 4.3 Miniaturization: Driven by and For The Market: 82 4.4 A Separate Outlook for MLCC BY Case Size 83 4.5 Tier-To-Tier Strategy in MLCC: 84 4.6 Other Markets Impacted By MLCC 86 5.0 How Recent MLCC End-of-Life Announcements Helped To Disrupt The High-Tech Economy in 2018 and 2019 87 5.1 Overview- 87 5.2 Background- 87 5.2.1 EOL- End-Of-Life-Announcement of Discontinuation- 87 5.2.2 Last Order Date- 87 5.2.3 Last Shipment Date- 87 5.3 Reasons for Discontinuation of MLCC Product Lines- 88 5.3.1 Unprofitable- 88 5.3.2 Deteriorating Equipment- 88 5.3.3 Inconsistent Raw Materials Supply- 88 5.3.4 The Timeline For MLCC Discontinuation: 88 5.5 Summary of MLCC Discontinuations: 90 5.5.1 - 22 and 47 Microfarad MLCC (Large Case Size) 90 5.6 High Voltage MLCC 90 5.7 Case Size, Voltage and Operating Temperature 91 6.0 MLCC: World Markets: 2018-2019 93 6.1 Global Market Value, Volume and Average Unit Pricing for Capacitors: 2007-2008-2009-2010-2011-2012-2013-2014-2015-2016-2017, 2018 and FY 2019 Estimates 93 6.2 Value Shipment Update: FY 2019- 94 6.2.1 1 Global Consumption Value For Capacitors: FY 2019: 94 6.3 Global Capacitor Value Demand By Type (Dielectric): FY 2019 And Historical 13 Year Market Growth 96 6.3.1 (MLCC) Ceramic Capacitor Markets: FY 2019 96 6.3.2 Summary of Changes in Capacitor Shipment Value By Dielectric: FY 2015 to FY 2019 96 6.4 Volume Shipment Update: FY 2019 99 6.4.1 Trend In Global Volume Shipments For Capacitors: FY 2007-2019 99 6.4.2 Global Capacitor Volume Demand By Type (Dielectric): FY 2019 And Historical 14- Year Market Growth 101 6.7 MLCC Pricing Update: FY 2019 102 6.7.1 Average Unit Selling Price For Capacitors: FY 2007-2019 102 6.7.2 Global Capacitor Pricing Trends By Type (Dielectric): FY 2019 And Historical 15 Year Market Trend 104 7.0 End-Markets Driving Demand for MLCC 105 7.1 End-Use Market Update: FY 2019-2024 Outlook 106 7.1.1 Capacitor Consumption By End-Use Market Segment: FY 2019 106 7.2 Changes In The Value of Consumption for Capacitors By End-Use Market Segment: FY 2014-FY 2019 108 7.2.1 HANDSETS AND BACKBONE-Market For Capacitors In The Telecommunications Segment: FY 2019 and FY 2024 Outlook: 108 7.2.2 5G Roll-Out Impact on Capacitor Markets: FY 2020- FY 2024 109 7.2.3 5 COMPUTERS-Market For Capacitors In The Computer & Business Machine Segment: FY 2019 and FY 2024 Outlook: 109 7.2.4 HOME THEATRE-Market For Capacitors In The Consumer AV Segment: FY 2018 and FY 2024 Outlook: 110 7.2.5 8 AUTOMOTIVE Market For Capacitors In The Automotive Segment: FY 2019 and FY 2024 Outlook: 111 7.2.6 Market For Capacitors In The Power, Industrial and Infrastructure Segment: FY 2019 and FY 2024 Outlook: 112 7.2.7 POWER AND LIGHTING- Industrial Electronics Segment- 113 7.2.8 SPECIALTY Market For Capacitors In The In Specialty Electronics Segment: FY 2019 and FY 2024 Outlook: 113 7.2.9 BENCHMARKING- MURATA WORLD’S LARGEST CAPACITOR MANUFACTURER- SALES BY END-USE MARKET SEGMENT FY 2015-fy 2019 115 7.3 Key Growth Markets For Capacitors in Automotive and Transportation Electronics: FY 2019-2024 116 7.4 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in Industrial Electronics: FY 2019-2024 117 7.5 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in Consumer AV: FY 2019-2024 118 7.6 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in Medical Electronics: FY 2019-2024 119 7.7 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in Defense and Space Electronics: FY 2019-2024 120 7.8 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in The IOT: FY 2019-2024 121 7.9 Key Growth Markets for Capacitors in The Roll-Out of 5G: FY 2019-2024 123 7.10 Key Growth Markets: 2019-2024 and Beyond 124 7.10.1 The Forecast Methodology Employed: 125 7.10.2 Smartphones: 127 7.10.3 The Internet of Things: 127 7.10.4 Wearable Technology: 127 7.10.5 Personal Medical Devices: 127 7.10.6 Renewable Energy: 128 7.10.7 7 Oil & Gas Electronics: 128 7.10.8 Home Automation: 128 7.10.9 Advanced Television: 128 7.10.10 Automotive Electronics: 129 7.10.11 Additional Developments: 129 7.11 Capacitor Vendors: Global Sales & Market Shares: FY 2019 130 7.11.1 Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC and Other Ceramic Capacitor Configuration) Manufacturers: FY 2019 Sales & Market Shares 131 7.12 CERAMIC COMPONENTS: Best Practices For Increasing Profitability: 133 7.12.1 In-House Production of Ceramic Formulations: 133 7.12.2 In-House Production of Advanced Barium Titanate: 133 7.12.3 Displacing Precious Metals With Base Metals In Electrodes and Terminations: 133 7.12.4 Tunnel Versus Batch Kilns: 133 7.12.5 Developing Massive Economies of Scale: 134 7.12.6 Having Specialty Parts in The Portfolio To Offset Price Erosion Trends in Large Runners: 134 7.12.7 Low Cost Regional Production: 134 8.0 High Capacitance MLCC: The Big Moneymaker: 2015-2020: 135 8.1 Important Market Developments In BME MLCC: 2015 135 8.2 High Capacitance MLCC: Competition At The Granular Level 135 8.3 Introduction: Competition in High Capacitance MLCC Is Intense 135 8.4 High Capacitance MLCC: Market Dominance Over Alternative Technologies: 135 8.5 High Capacitance MLCC: To Be First To Market With Differentiated Products: 136 8.6 Increasing The Maximum Overall MLCC Capacitance Value: 136 8.7) Increasing The Maximum Capacitance Value for Each of the MLCC Chip Case Sizes 137 8.8 Increasing MLCC Capacitance Value While Also Increasing Chip Operating Voltage 138 8.9 Increasing MLCC Capacitance Value While Not Impeding Chip Performance Characteristics: 139 8.10 Increasing MLCC Capacitance Value While Decreasing Chip Thickness: 139 8.11 BME MLCC Markets: Summary and Conclusion: 139 9.0 MLCC Factories Consuming Nickel (Customers By Country) 140 9.1 Japanese MLCC Factories: 140 9.1.1 Top 15 Factories Producing Ceramic Capacitors In Japan- 2019 141 9.2 Korean Production Output of Ceramic Capacitors in 2019 142 9.2.1 Top 4 Factories Producing MLCC In Korea ROK 142 9.3 Chinese Production Output of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2015 142 9.3.1 Top 36 Factories Producing MLCC In China 142 9.3 Philippines Production Output Of Ceramic Capacitors 2019 143 9.3.1 Top 2 Factories Producing MLCC In Philippines 144 9.4 Singapore Production Output Of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2015 144 9.4.1 Top Factory Producing MLCC In Singapore 145 9.5 Americas Production Of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2015 145 9.5.1 Top 20 Factories Producing MLCC In the United States 146 9.5.2 Mexico Production Of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2019 147 9.5.2.1 Top Factories Producing Ceramic Capacitors In Mexico: 2015 147 9.6 Malaysia Production of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2019 147 9.6.1 Top Factories Producing Ceramic Capacitors In Malaysia: 2015 147 9.7 European and ROW Production of Ceramic Capacitors: FY 2019 147 9.7.1 Top Factories Producing MLCC In Europe and Israel: 2019 148 10.0 Capacity Expansion In The Global MLCC Markets 149 10.1 Capacity Expansion In The Global Ceramic Capacitor Industry: Calendar-Year 2018-2019: 149 10.2 Why the 2018 Up-Cycle Resembles the 2007 Up-Cycle: 149 10.3 When The Market Goes South… 150 10.4 MLCC Expansion Strategy Analysis- 150 10.4.1 ROI Equations Over Time Show Yields Lower Over Time 150 10.4.2 Regional Expansion Analysis: 151 10.4.3Supply Chain Analysis: Materials Availability: 151 10.4.4 High Cap Versus Low Cap Revenue Analysis: 151 10.4.5 Market Share Analysis: Maintenance and Roadmaps: 152 10.4.6 Where Capacity Expansion Is Expected: MLCC Dielectric Chemistry: 152 10.4.7 X5R High Capacitance MLCC 152 10.4.8 Y5V High Capacitance MLCC 152 10.9.9 X7R High Capacitance MLCC 152 10.5 Additional Markets Impacted By Capex In MLCC 153 10.5.1 Integration and Modularization Markets Outlook- 153 10.6 Summary and Conclusion: 153 10.7 MLCC Capacity Expansion (Technology and Case Sizes): 154 10.7.1 When The Market Goes South… 154 10.7.2 MLCC Expansion Strategy Analysis- 154 10.7.3 ROI Equations Over Time Show Yields Lower Over Time 154 10.7..4 Regional Expansion Analysis: 155 10.7.5 Supply Chain Analysis: Materials Availability: 155 10.7.6 High Cap Versus Low Cap Revenue Analysis: 155 10.7.8 Market Share Analysis: Maintenance and Roadmaps: 156 10.7.9 Where Capacity Expansion Is Expected: MLCC Dielectric Chemistry: 156 10.8 Technology Assessment of The High Capacitance X5R MLCC Market Segment: 2005, 2013, 2018 Comparisons 157 10.8.1 X5R MLCC Market Impacted By Acquisitions and Slow Adoption of Technology: 2005-2013-2018 157 10.8.2 Competitive Environment In X5R High Capacitance MLCC Markets By Maximum µF: 2005-2013-2018 158 10.8.4 Technology Assessment of The High Capacitance X7R MLCC Market Segment: 2005, 2013, 2018 Comparisons of The Roadmap: 158 10.8.3 X7R MLCC Market Impacted By Lack of Investment in High Capacitance Variations: 2005-2013-2018 159 10.8.5 Competitive Environment In X7R High Capacitance MLCC Markets By Maximum µF: 2005-2013-2018 160 10.8.6 Summary and Conclusions: MLCC are Hard to Make 160 10.9 MLCC Case Size Production Strategy (30+ Manufacturers) 161 10.10 Capacity Expansion In The Global Ceramic Capacitor Industry: Calendar-Year 2018-2019 163 10.11 Capacity Expansion Comparative Analysis: 2018, 2007, 2000 Upcycles 164 11.0 Raw Material Supply Chain Review: 2019 166 11.1 Introduction: Mining & Materials: The Supply Chain Begins in the Ground 166 11.2 Mining & Materials: Electronics: Electronics Begin in the Groound 166 10.2 Component End-Markets Driving Demand for Engineered Materials: FY 2019 169 11.3 FEEDSTOCKS: Relationship Between Raw Materials And Specific Electronic Components 170 11.4 BASE METALS: 170 11.1.1 Nickel: 170 11.1.2 Copper: 170 11.5 PRECIOUS METALS: 170 11.5.1 Palladium: 170 11.5.2 Silver: 170 11.6 ENGINEERED MATERIALS: Relationship Between Raw Materials And Specific Electronic Components 170 11.7 Some Key Areas of Intense Market Value In Engineered Raw Materials: 171 11.7.1 Barium Titanate: 171 11.7.2 Ceramic Dielectric Materials: 171 11.7.3 Ceramic Additive Materials: 172 11.7.4 Electrode Powders and Pastes: 172 11.7.5 Termination Powders and Pastes: 172 11.8 Electronic Components, Engineered Materials & Surface Area: 172 11.9 Why Ceramic Components Are So Economical: 172 11.10 The Requirement of Nanotechnology In Electronic Circuits: 172 12.0 Nickel Electrode Producer and Paste Suppliers to The MLCC Market: 174 12.1 BHP 174 12.2 CNPC 174 12.3 DAIKIN INDUSTRIES 175 12.4 HONGWU INTERNATIONAL GROUP 175 12.5 JFE MINERAL 176 12.6 JINCHUAN GROUP INTERNATIONAL 178 12.7 JIANGSU BOQIAN NEW MATERIALS STOCK Co., Ltd (Ningbo Assets) 178 12.8 MURATA MANUFACTURING (CAPTIVE) 179 12.9 PJSC “MMC “NORILSK NICKEL” 180 12.10 PRED MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL 181 12.11 QUANTUM SPHERE 181 12.12 SEMCO (CAPTIVE) 181 12.13 SHOEI CHEMICAL 182 12.14 TOHO TITANIUM 185 12.15 SUMITOMO METAL MINING 186 12.16 TEKNA PLASMA SYSTEMS 186 12.17 VALE SA (INCO) 187